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So this study sets out to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of environmental sanitation in semi-urban communities with a view to designing specific strategies that targets behavioural change by improving their knowledge and attitude towards sanitation. Orlu LGA which is made up of 10 autonomous communities, is predominantly a semi-urban area covering 133 sq km with an estimated population of 142,792 and a population density of about 1074 persons per square kilometre according to the 2006 national census  . Study Population/Study Design/Selection Criteria The study population comprised households and business premises within the semi-urban communities in Orlu LGA. The criteria for selection was any individual aged 20 years and above from a household or business premise within the selected communities and had lived in the study area for at least one year.
Background: Environmental sanitation is a fundamental process that is a key public health intervention which is essential for social, economic and overall health development of communities.
Objective: To determine Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Environmental Sanitation in Semi-Urban Communities in Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria.
This leads to the improvement of health, well-being and economic productivity and benefits the individual, household and community through the provision and practice of adequate sanitation, good hygiene and the use of safe water   .
In 2012, a study conducted by World Health Organization reported that, there was a return of 5.5 USD with respect to lower health costs, more productivity and fewer premature deaths for every 1 USD invested in sanitation  .
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Also according to Daramola  , the population growth in Nigerian cities is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the provision of environmental sanitation facilities.
So in addressing these challenges of sanitation in the semi urban and urban communities, the provision of sanitation infrastructure serves only as a means to an end, as the attitude and behaviour of the individuals, households and community as a whole, determines the end  .
The first stage involved the selection of the communities that were studied.
This was done using simple random sampling by balloting of which 3 semi-urban communities were selected from a list of 6 semi-urban autonomous communities that are part of the 10 communities (rural and semi-urban) that make up Orlu LGA.