Essentially, they advocate for doing potentially unnecessary homework from approximately age five to ten as a way of practicing for doing necessary homework from age 10 to 15.
No research has ever been conducted to determine whether this claim has any merit.
In a single study, parents and teachers of middle school students believed that homework improved students' study skills and personal responsibility skills.
Leone & Richards (1989) found that students generally had negative emotions when completing homework and reduced engagement compared to other activities.
Students in the survey who were ridiculed or punished by parents and peers had a higher incidence of depression symptoms, with 2.2% of students reporting that they "always" had suicidal thoughts, and anxiety was exacerbated by punishments and criticism of students by teachers for both problems with homework as well as forgetting to hand in homework.
A 2007 study of American students by Met Life found that 89% of students felt stressed from homework, with 34% reporting that they "often" or "very often" felt stressed from homework.
Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education.
Homework is designed to reinforce what students have already learned.
Homework can cause tension and conflict in the home as well as at school, and can reduce students' family and leisure time.
In the Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) survey, failure to complete homework and low grades where homework was a contributing factor was correlated with greater conflict; some students have reported teachers and parents frequently criticizing their work.