Literature Review On Transportation

Literature Review On Transportation-70
In this paper, the importance of Operations research is discussed and the literature of assignment and transportation problem is discussed in detail.Ensuring energy security, stopping climate change, and improving urban air quality are the three main challenges of this century that are being addressed by governments globally.In this sense, the study of sustainability should also be considered a system owing to its complexity and the interrelations between its three dimensions (economic, environmental, and social) [14,15,16,17].

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As previously mentioned, the transportation sector is a complex system and achieving sustainability is a complex problem, both of which have multiple relationships between their elements, and the decisions taken to solve a problem in one part of the system may generate difficulties elsewhere.

Therefore, it is necessary to determine the possible consequences of the solutions in both the transportation system and in the sustainable performance indicators.

The transportation sector contributes greatly to these problems [1,2,3,4].

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [5], the transportation sector contributes to 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Moreover, decisions made by one stakeholder may create difficulties in another part of the system because of the feedback interactions and relationships between the stakeholder and system [11,12].

These stakeholders can be classified according to their function in the transportation sector and the process of diffusion of EVs.The transportation sector contributes significantly to these issues.Sustainable transport involves the consideration of three dimensions—economic development, environmental preservation, and social development—and one of its aspects is the focus on the transition towards electric vehicles.Various methodologies have been developed to evaluate the dimensions of sustainability.The objective of the sustainability assessment is to understand the impacts of a product, company, sector, or system in terms of three aspects: economic, environmental, and social [20,21,22].We can also find governmental actors, who formulate policies and regulations to regulate the interactions between supply and demand as well as promote a specific type of technology or behaviour according to the political agenda of each country [7,13].As the transportation sector is a complex system, owing to the multiple interactions within the system, the environment in which it is immersed is also complex.However, the majority of these methodologies do not take into account the relationship between these aspects, which may affect the performance indicators of the assessment [20,21].One of the methods that takes into consideration some of the interactions between the three aspects is the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which is an integrated framework of different techniques, such as life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), and social LCA [22,23,24]. [24] proposed a novel approach of the LCSA using system dynamics (SD) to understand the various interactions between the economic, environmental, and social performance of the system.To obtain insight into this complexity, we perform a systematic review of studies in which the demand and supply components of the passenger transportation sector were modelled in an integrated manner along with the dimensions of sustainability.All the reviewed previous studies had taken into consideration both the economic and environmental dimensions; however, only a few had also considered social development.

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