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John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England.His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War.Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature, was developed in the course of his teaching duties.
Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers.
He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician.
Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain.
In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years.Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675.In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government.He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances.In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge.He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world.Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college.Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates.He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration.This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought.