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Every discipline can be understood only through thinking.
The mind that thinks critically is a mind prepared to take ownership of new ideas and modes of thinking. It works its way into a system of thought by thinking-through: The skills in up-grading thinking are the same skills as those required in up-grading learning.
The art of thinking well illuminates the art of learning well.
When we teach so that students are not thinking their way through subjects and disciplines, students leave our courses with no more knowledge than they had when they entered them.
When we sacrifice thought to gain coverage, we sacrifice knowledge at the same time.
In the typical history class, for example, students are often asked to remember facts about the past.
They therefore come to think of history class as a place where you hear names and dates and places; where you try to memorize and state them on tests.
We forget this when we design instruction as though recall were equivalent to knowledge.
Every discipline — mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, sociology, anthropology, history, philosophy, and so on — is a mode of thinking.
We know science, not when we can recall sentences from our science textbooks, but when we can think scientifically.
We understand sociology only when we can think sociologically, history only when we can think historically, and philosophy only when we can think philosophically.