In contrast to the precipitation of rainfall, snowfall occurs when the temperature is below freezing point.
They take the form of crystalline structures that precipitate as snowflakes from the clouds.
Abrupt changes in total amount of precipitation, amount of rainfall, amount of snowfall and S/R are detected for 2005, 2004, 19, respectively.
Total amount of precipitation, amount of rainfall, amount of snowfall and S/R are concentrated in cycles of approximately 5 years, 10 years, 16 years and 20 years, respectively.
Simulations with a 1-D thermodynamic sea ice model demonstrate that the warm bias in ERA5 acts to reduce thermodynamic ice growth.
The higher precipitation and snowfall in ERA5 results in a thicker snowpack that allows less heat loss to the atmosphere.The SF to TP ratio is larger in ERA5 than in ERA-I, on average 0.6 for ERA-I and 0.8 for ERA5 along the buoy trajectories.Thus, the substantial anomalous Arctic rainfall in ERA-I is reduced in ERA5, especially in summer and autumn.We find that ERA5 is generally warmer than ERA-I in winter and spring (0–1.2 C) over Arctic sea ice.Both reanalyses have a warm bias over Arctic sea ice relative to buoy observations.The size of water droplets vary from 0.2 to 0.6, while the rate of water droplets can vary from 0.10 inch to 0.30 inch an hour which may be either light rain or heavy rain. Snowfall can be classified into forms on the basis of the crystal structure that it precipitates into or the rate of accumulation.Snow can be in the form of flakes, crystals, grains or pellets.In this study, we compare the 2 m air temperature (T2M), snowfall (SF) and total precipitation (TP) from ERA-I and ERA5, and evaluate these products using buoy observations from Arctic sea ice for the years 2010 to 2016.We further assess how biases in reanalyses can influence the snow and sea ice evolution in the Arctic, when used to force a thermodynamic sea ice model.Precipitation of rain and snow Rainfall is a form of liquid precipitation unlike other forms of precipitation such as snow, hail or frost.When water on the earth surface is heated above the melting point, it gets evaporated and rises in the air as vapor.