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Robert Hooke was the first person to term the building block of all living organisms as "cells" after looking at cork.In recent years, there have been many studies which question the cell theory.
Approximately 75-85% of the cell's volume is due to water making it an indispensable solvent as a result of its polarity and structure.
These molecules within the cell, which operate as substrates, provide a suitable environment for the cell to carry out metabolic reactions and signalling.
Therefore, in order for these molecules to participate in reactions, within the cell, they need to be able to cross this membrane layer to get into the cell.
They accomplish this process of gaining access to the cell via: osmotic pressure, diffusion, concentration gradients, and membrane channels.
Cell growth pertains to the increase in the number of cells present in an organism as it grows and develops; as the organism gets larger so too does the number of cells present.
Cells are the foundation of all organisms, they are the fundamental unit of life.
Other factors such as size, the way in which they reproduce, and the number of cells distinguish them from one another.
The study of the cell is done on a molecular level; however, most of the processes within the cell are made up of a mixture of small organic molecules, inorganic ions, hormones, and water.
Scientists have struggled to decide whether viruses are alive or not.
Viruses lack common characteristics of a living cell, such as membranes, cell organelles, and the ability to reproduce by themselves.